The anemia is a disorder characterized by reduced hemoglobin blood to concentrations below normal limits, causing a decreased capacity of red blood cells to carry the oxygen to all the cells of the organism. Hemoglobin is a protein rich in iron, which is what gives blood its characteristic red color.
There are several types of anemia , it depends on the cause that causes it. It can be temporary or long-lasting, and can range from mild to severe
This condition requires it to be diagnosed by a health professional through various tests, as it produces a series of symptoms that can be confused with other diseases.
Causes of anemia
There are three main causes which are:
· Blood loss (bleeding from trauma, digestive ulcers, etc.)
· Lack of red blood cell production (from chronic or kidney disease, etc.)
· Increased rate of destruction of red blood cells (hereditary diseases, etc.)
But there are also other secondary causes that can lead to anemia:
· Deficit iron, vitamin B12 or folic acid . These nutrients are part of red blood cells; the deficit can occur due to digestive disorders where the absorption process of these nutrients is affected.
· Certain medications such as some antibiotics or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
· Chronic diseases such as cancer or some types of arthritis.
There are frequent symptoms of anemia and these can vary depending on the type of anemia and its severity.
It is a symptom that occurs in several disorders and by itself does not determine that anemia is what is suffered. Its main characteristic is a general feeling of tiredness, fatigue, and physical and mental weakness.
2. Pale or yellowish skin
It is an abnormal loss of skin color and can also be seen in mucous membranes such as the tongue, inside the eyes, lips; depending on the degree of anemia. This symptom is due to lack of blood supply in these areas or due to the decrease in red blood cells that anemia can cause.
3. Irregular heartbeat
Or palpitations, it is a feeling as if the heart is beating violently or racing, sometimes it can be accompanied by anguish. The heart rhythm can be normal or abnormal and can be felt in the chest, throat, or neck.
4. Difficulty breathing
Or dyspnea, is characterized by a shortness of breath and can derive from a subjective feeling of discomfort, which is often caused by poor breathing.
This symptom occurs more in severe anemias, when the hemoglobin drops below 30g / L, signs of cerebral hypoxia appear that produce this symptom.
6. Dizziness or lightheadedness
As previously stated, hemoglobin carries oxygen to cells through the blood; When there is a decrease in hemoglobin and therefore iron values in the blood, oxygen is difficult to reach the cells and can cause dizziness. They can also be related to low blood pressure, due to decreased blood volume.
7. Cold hands and feet
This is because anemia can alter the functioning of the thyroid, which is responsible for regulating body temperature, and the first to be affected by this are the feet and hands.
This is due to the lack of oxygenation of the muscles; It is associated with poor blood circulation caused by anemia, causing disorders in the normal functioning of the muscles, which can cause involuntary contractions of the muscles.
All of the anemia symptoms listed above alone do not determine that you have this condition; That is why if you have one or more of these signs you should seek professional consultation.
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